C#’s async is the wrong way around

C# recently (in the last few years) introduced the asyncawait language feature. If you aren’t familiar with it, I’ll wait here while you go check it out.

Welcome back. Async is awesome right?

So lets say we have some asynchronous method, Foo, and we want to call it from the asynchronous method Bar. The syntax looks like this:

So what does await Foo() mean? To quote from MSDN:

The await operator is applied to a task in an asynchronous method to suspend the execution of the method until the awaited task completes

Seems simple enough. The statement await Foo() calls Foo, suspends Bar, and resumes Bar when Foo comes back with a result. Now lets consider what the synchronousversion of the code would have looked like (assuming Foo2 is the synchronous version of whatever Foo would have done):

So, what does Foo2() mean in this synchronous example? Well, to me it means, “suspend (block) execution of Bar2 while you execute Foo2, and then resume it when Foo2 comes back with the result”. This is obvious: when you call a function you don’t expect the caller to continue before the called function returned. The caller “awaits” the called function. Right?

The natural expectation is for the calling function to wait for the called function to complete. The asynchronous code should actually look like this1:

If we actually intended to use the result as a task instead of awaiting it, we could do something like this:

In the above example, the async call can be thought of as something like a “fork”, because the called function can head off asynchronously to the calling function. Not in the thread or process sense of the word “fork”, since async has very little to do with threads directly, but in the sense that control is in some way branched.

I’m not actually saying that the C# async feature was designed incorrectly. The choice to do it this way in C# is very reasonable considering backwards compatibility with previous versions, compatibility with .NET, and especially backwards compatibility with what people think a “call” actually is. Rather, what I’m demonstrating is that “async” is actually a feature that’s always existed in some way since there were first function calls – the caller always has “awaited” the callee. When people tell you what C#’s await does, they’re in a way really telling you about things that the compiler and runtime do to implement the waiting differently to normal. The way in which the caller is suspended is different between the asynchronous and synchronous code, but that shouldn’t have to change the model that we use to reason about our code.

It strikes me then, that using async and await in C# is much like using inline code in C. They’re both special syntaxes that prompt the compiler to perform specific optimizations. If you write “synchronous” code then the entire stack (and thread context) is preserved and “suspended”, while if you put in a few special words “async”, “await”, and “Task<>” then you cue the compiler to only preserve the current stack frame.

Perhaps for a while this is the only way it will be, but I imagine that slowly it will change so that async vs sync merely becomes an optimization detail. All functions, and property accessors, will work equally with sync or async, so you won’t have to choose between them 99% of the time. You won’t need two separate functions to GET from a URL asynchronously vs synchronously. You simply call the function, and the compiler figures out the best way calling convention (synchronous vs asynchronous).


  1. Actually, if I was designing the language from scratch, the asynchronous code would look identical to the synchronous code above, since they both do the same thing 

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